Amid widespread school closures, it is more important than ever to maintain critical health services for the most vulnerable children.
By Sarah Allen
Parasitic intestinal worms affect more than one in four people globally, but they are disproportionately prevalent in Bangladesh, where they infect one in two children. These infections prevent nutrients from being absorbed into the body, which often leads to impaired cognitive and physical development, anemia, undernutrition, and other illnesses. Children infected by worms are less likely to attend school regularly, and the related health issues diminish their ability to focus and learn.
“I used to fall sick quite often with stomach aches,” said Tanisha, an eleven-year-old in Saidpur, Bangladesh. When she was feeling sick, she was unable to attend school.
Intestinal worms are widely prevalent, but they are also exceptionally simple and cost-effective to treat, particularly those that are spread through the soil, known as Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH). For just 50 cents per child per year, deworming pills can have broad and lasting impacts, from keeping kids in school longer to increasing their earnings potential as adults.
Recent research on a deworming program in Kenya found that 20 years after treatment, children with two to three extra years of deworming earned 13 percent more money as adults, spent 14 percent more in consumer spending, and were more likely to work in urban areas and in non-agricultural jobs with higher earnings potential.
A BRAC staff member raises awareness about deworming. Photo by A.S.M. Maruf Karbir, Viscom Bangladesh. Photo taken prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
It is clear that deworming has positive, lasting effects on children’s health and development. But traditionally, deworming programs have been delivered through schools, a cost-effective and easy way to reach many children at once. But how can we reach the most vulnerable children with this potentially impactful treatment when many of them—especially girls—are frequently absent or not in school at all?
With support from Johnson & Johnson and in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh, BRAC launched a health program in 2017 to reduce STH infections in both in-school and out-of-school children across Syedur, a sub-district in Bangladesh. The program trains community health workers to diagnose and treat intestinal worms, educates teachers and families about how to prevent and detect infections, and works with schools and communities to promote hygiene practices and facilitate deworming. BRAC health workers target children and parents in the community to educate them about the importance of deworming and of sanitation as a method for prevention.
In addition to assisting schools in biannual mass treatment campaigns, BRAC organizes deworming camps and delivers home-based treatment for worms, with an emphasis on reaching children who work, are affected by child marriage, or for other reasons do not attend school. Because community health workers are trusted members of their communities, they are able to educate families on the importance of deworming, break down stigmas and cultural barriers, and improve uptake of the treatment.
A community health worker educates mothers on preventing and treating intestinal worms. Photo by A.S.M. Maruf Karbir, Viscom Bangladesh. Photo taken prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Through the program, BRAC has trained nearly 200 community health workers and over 4,000 school mentors to educate families on deworming. In turn, these providers have educated over 100,000 mothers and caregivers through health forums and reached over 90,000 children with deworming medication through schools and community deworming camps.
Amid COVID-19 and widespread school closures around the globe, maintaining the delivery of essential health care services outside of school settings is more crucial than ever. More than 40 million children have been affected by school closures in Bangladesh, where schools have not reopened since last March, eliminating a critical avenue for deworming and other vital public health interventions.
BRAC has developed creative approaches to engage children at home with deworming messages, such as creating comic books with lessons on deworming and hygiene practices and broadcasting animated videos on local television.
While her school was closed and she was learning at home, Tanisha received accessible, creative comic books created by BRAC that helped her easily understand how to prevent intestinal worms.
Tanisha shows off her favorite comic book.
“After reading these comic books, I understand that the reason for my stomach aches was not washing my hands properly before eating,” she said. “I learned how people can be affected by worms, and how they can be avoided. Now I always wash my hands.”
Widespread, extended school closures mean that more children are vulnerable and unable to access health services. To respond to the pandemic and ensure the continuity of care, BRAC has equipped health workers with personal protective equipment and additional training, mobilized tens of thousands of staff and volunteers to educate communities on COVID-19 and how to prevent it, set up testing kiosks, and adopted remote, no-touch, and low-touch health protocols to continue delivering care door-to-door safely and referring families to testing facilities.
Amid the pandemic, reaching the most vulnerable children and families is more critical than ever. Health and poverty are inextricably linked, and healthy families are able to pursue bright, productive futures. Together with Johnson & Johnson, BRAC is ensuring that even the most disadvantaged children have the opportunity to grow, learn, and thrive.
Sarah Allen is Communications Officer at BRAC USA.
Dr. Muhammad Musa, Executive Director of BRAC International, shares reflections on Sir Fazle’s life and legacy on the anniversary of his passing.
By Dr. Muhammad Musa
On December 20, 2020, we marked the first anniversary of the passing of BRAC’s beloved founder, Sir Fazle Hasan Abed. On this day, I am reflecting not just on Abed Bhai’s life and legacy, but also on who he was as a person and how he touched the lives of those around him.
Abed Bhai—as those of us who knew him called him with respect and affection—contained multitudes. He was a global leader with vision and purpose, a courageous decision-maker and institution-builder, a humble personality who didn’t like the spotlight, and a loving family member and father. He built one of the largest and most successful development organizations in the world, but always highlighted the work of others above his own. A pioneer of social enterprises as a tool to address poverty and social injustice—and a lover of poetry, music and art—Abed Bhai was many things, but above all he was a man with a calling to help make the world a better place, not only for the current generation, but also for all those yet to come.
I am incredibly grateful that I had the opportunity to work closely with Abed Bhai, especially in the last four years of his life. I was fortunate, as our offices were facing each other, to have many chances to interact with him informally on a regular basis. I will always cherish the days (and occasional late nights) of conversation and reflecting on work and life together.
Although I miss our conversations in the office, I learned the most from Abed Bhai in the field. I believe his last field visit was to the Rohingya refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, in March 2019. We were together for two full days, driving miles to reach the refugee camps, followed by hours spent walking the narrow lanes in between the hundreds of tents in which Rohingya families were living. Together, we visited BRAC’s innovative Humanitarian Play Labs for the children of Rohingya refugees, observed in-camp income-generating centers for refugee women, and witnessed learning centers where children were receiving education services.
Abed Bhai was tireless, walking from morning to evening, intently observing each program. He was always appreciative of the great work that our team members were doing, while at the same time identifying ways to pursue even higher levels of excellence and challenging us to achieve even greater impact. It was one of the most rewarding learning experiences of my career. I realized on that trip that a BRAC leader needs to be extremely appreciative of the work of her/his/their team, but must never become complacent or satisfied. Abed Bhai wanted us to continually raise the bar of the quality and scale of our programs. That was our Abed Bhai, who never felt we were done, but, rather, always believed we still had a long way to go!
One year has already passed since our beloved Abed Bhai left us: I continue to miss him. I miss his voice, his smile, his affection, his teaching, and most importantly his enormous ability to help solve complex problems through simple and non-bureaucratic actions. Even though he is no longer with us, I still feel his spirit around me every day. In a year that has tested us all, the collective commitment of everyone in the global BRAC family—from field staff to management to donors, partners, and board members—to fight for a better world proves that the spirit of BRAC, the spirit of Abed Bhai, is still alive and well.
I am so grateful to have been able to know a man such as Abed Bhai, but I am even more grateful for the community, the BRAC family, that he built and so many are part of. Abed Bhai’s shining accomplishment is the people he was able to bring together—from his wife and children, to his lifelong friends who are still involved in the organization, to all the hundreds of thousands of people who make BRAC what it is.
Although today we look back in remembrance of Abed Bhai’s amazing life and accomplishments, tomorrow we look forward to carrying on his spirit and vision to create a world free of poverty, inequality, and injustice. Thank you for being a part of this collective effort.
I look forward to continuing Abed Bhai’s journey with you all.
Dr. Muhammad Musa is the Executive Director of BRAC USA.
Farmers like Ansu, Fatu, and Ciatta invest in agriculture training to produce more food, earn more money, and build climate-resilient communities across Liberia.
By Annie Cameron
“Education has no end,” Ansu said as he looked out over his newly cultivated land. Ansu (pictured above), like many people in Liberia, has always had a desire to farm, but did not have the land or training he needed to sustain a livelihood. Then, Ansu was offered an opportunity through his neighbors.
Revered for his dedicated work ethic and great enthusiasm, Ansu was selected by his community to be one of 15,000 farmers to enroll in a project designed to improve food security and reduce poverty and malnutrition in rural communities across Liberia.
BRAC’s “Breaking the Cycle of Poverty and Malnutrition” project was launched in 2018 to train and organize Liberian farmers and help them increase their yields, boost their incomes, and improve their food security. One of the core features of the project involves facilitating training that empowers farmers with knowledge and skills.
Lead farmers, like Ansu, cultivate their land to demonstrate modern farming techniques to other farmers in their communities. Every two weeks, these groups of farmers observe, analyze, and learn about new crop varieties and farming techniques from Ansu. This peer-to-peer exchange offers an innovative means of sharing knowledge and fostering learning in rural communities.
BRAC has trained over 11,000 farmers in modern farming techniques such as homestead gardening to cultivate nutrient-rich crops and climate smart agriculture to mitigate the devastating effects of climate change.
Fatu (above) used to be a rice farmer, but she struggled to maintain her productivity as climatic conditions became less predictable in Liberia. With less rain and more frequent droughts, her water sources dried up and she was forced to haul the water she needed for her crops for several miles.
But after enrolling in BRAC’s program, Fatu was able to use seeds from BRAC to diversify beyond rice and cultivate a wide variety of nutrient-rich crops like peppers, sweet potatoes, and cabbage. She also learned to plant her vegetables under mounds of dirt and use sticks and leaves to shield them from the sun and retain more moisture to make a smaller quantity of water go farther.
Equipped with new knowledge, Fatu is now more resilient to shifting weather patterns. With her improved productivity and better crop yields, she sees a future for herself and her family. Although her education was limited, she envisions a future full of opportunity for her grandchildren.
“By the grace of god, my grandchildren will go to college,” she said.
BRAC’s community-based approach reaches people who are disproportionately marginalized, especially women, who make up nearly 70 percent of the farmers trained in Liberia over the past two years. A portion of the enrolled farmers are trained in raising livestock and poultry, which provides them with an excellent source of protein and a productive livelihood opportunity.
Ciatta (above), who was trained as a chicken farmer, has become a profitable entrepreneur and leader in her community. She received startup inputs to raise her first batch of 100 chickens after participating in a BRAC training. Now, she has raised over 500 chickens, and she plans to expand her coop even further.
Ciatta’s well-manicured coop is a reflection of her training in action. She now has a wholesome source of food to feed her children, and has invested her earnings in a booming small business that employs others. Ciatta is a source of knowledge for her community. She aims to expand her business raising chickens and empower others with the same livelihood opportunities that she has had.
When hardworking farmers like Ciatta, Ansu, and Fatu have the tools and skills they need to produce more food, they can feed their families and earn money to reinvest in their households, businesses, and communities. And when their children have enough to eat, they grow stronger and healthier, perform better in school, and become more equipped to be leaders of the next generation.
A recent BRAC study quantified this impact, finding that on average, participants in BRAC Liberia’s agriculture and livestock programs in 2018 increased their income from poultry farming by 92 percent, from growing rice by 29 percent, and from growing cassava by 22 percent.
BRAC believes training is the foundation to unlocking a lifetime of knowledge and skills for farmers to become self-sustaining and resilient to climate shocks. We are proud to work hand in hand with rural communities to build a stronger future for families in Liberia.
Annie Cameron is Program Officer for Health and Agriculture at BRAC USA.
Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, BRAC Founder, passed away in December 2019. Here, Abed’s friends and admirers reflect on his life and legacy.
Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, the beloved founder of BRAC, passed away on December 20, 2019. An icon of international development and pivotal figure in Bangladesh, Sir Fazle pioneered innovations in the sector that changed the course of a country and reverberated around the globe. His belief in the dignity and value of every human being, especially the poorest, has defined the ethos of the organization since he founded it.
Born in 1936, in the Sylhet region of British India, now Bangladesh, Sir Fazle grew up with significant privilege. After studying accounting in London, he went to work as an executive at Shell Oil, where he quickly rose to head its finance division. He would later say his experience at Shell taught him how to run large operations effectively and efficiently.
In the early 1970s, a devastating cyclone and the Bangladesh Liberation War ravaged his home country, dramatically altering the course of his life. Sir Fazle left his job and founded a small relief effort. After the war was over, he returned to a newly-sovereign Bangladesh. He founded BRAC to provide support for the 10 million refugees who had sheltered abroad during the war.
From the earliest days of BRAC to the global organization we know today, Sir Fazle was renowned for his famously dogged work ethic, keen eye for detail, and data-driven approach. Cited by Bill Clinton, Bill and Melinda Gates, the editors of The Economist, and many others for his extraordinary influence on global development, Sir Fazle avoided self-promotion, believing that BRAC’s work should speak for itself.
The organization he created and led for most of his life had historic impact, especially in his native Bangladesh, helping that country rise from the ranks of one of the poorest nations on earth to a lower-middle-income country and a model for successful development. Today, his remarkable legacy persists in the hundreds of millions of people around the world whose lives he bettered.
On my dear friend Abed
“Abed was one of the foremost leaders of thought as well as action of our time… An astonishing combination of clear-headed thinking and sure-footed execution made Abed the great leader that he was. We have had very few like him in the history of the world.”
Amartya Sen, Nobel Laureate in Economics
He was a great gift to humanity
“Sir Fazle Abed’s life was a great gift to humanity. His nearly 50 years of visionary leadership at BRAC transformed millions of lives in Bangladesh and beyond, and changed the way the world thinks about development. Driven by an unwavering belief in the inherent dignity of all people, he empowered those in extreme poverty to build better futures for themselves and their families… His legacy will live on in all the people whose lives are better, healthier and more secure because of his remarkable service.”
Bill Clinton, 42nd President of the United States and Founder and Chair, Clinton Foundation
We will forever draw inspiration from his work
“In 1972, after Bangladesh’s war of liberation had left many homeless, Fazle Abed left his job as a London oil executive and returned to his home country with £16,000 in his pocket — and the ambitious goal of building 10,400 houses. He ended up raising enough money to build 16,000 houses for some of the poorest people in Bangladesh and still had enough left over to start his next project. That’s who Sir Fazle was as a humanitarian, and that’s what he helped us learn about development work: How to build a big, efficient organization, while never forgetting who you were doing it for. We were saddened to hear of his passing and will forever draw inspiration from his work, as will the rest of the world, which he left so much better than he found.”
Bill and Melinda Gates, Co-Chairs, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
His life is a lesson for us
“The scale and impact of what he has done, and yet the utter humility with which he has done everything, is a lesson for every single one of us.”
Jim Yong Kim, Former President, World Bank
One of the heroes of modern times
“I can think of few people who have done so much for humanity as Abed. He was a friend and someone I deeply admired and learned from: While US aid efforts in Afghanistan often flopped, his succeeded. Reflecting his humility, no one called him Sir Fazle. He was simply Abed.”
Nicholas Kristof, New York Times Columnist
We will never forget the example he set
“Over the course of three decades, under Sir Fazle’s inspiring leadership, the humanitarian organization he founded, BRAC, has become one of the world’s leading development organizations. From its humble beginnings in Bangladesh – the country he loved so well – to its expansion to 10 countries across Asia and Africa, BRAC has stood as an inspiring example of how we can gather people together in common cause to improve the lives of the most vulnerable… All of us at UNICEF will miss his ideas and advice. We will never forget the example he set.”
Henrietta Fore, Executive Director, UNICEF
My deepest condolences
“The hundreds of millions of lives he transformed will remember him as the spark of hope, especially by those from the most vulnerable and poorest communities now enriched by new possibilities. ”
Dr. Charles Chen Yidan, Founder, Yidan Prize Foundation
As more than a billion students around the world put their schooling on pause, families are doing more than ever to bring learning home.
BY SARAH ALLEN, MIA PEREZ, AND ROSA TAYLOR
According to UNESCO, more than 90 percent of the world’s learners have been impacted by school closures during the coronavirus pandemic. As more than a billion children around the world are forced to put their schooling on pause, parents and caregivers are left in challenging situations, often balancing work with child care or home schooling to keep their children from falling behind.
Since 2016, BRAC Play Labs have offered quality, affordable play-based learning for children, ages three to five, in underserved communities. Play Labs deliver education through a community-based model and engage caregivers in their children’s learning beyond the classroom. Here are four tips from our Play Labs to help your family bring playful learning home.
1. Create spaces that facilitate learning
Learning environments are a crucial factor in learning. Play Labs are designed to encourage play and facilitate learning, incorporating child-friendly elements such as windows that are low to the ground and zones for different types of play, such as make-believe, music, art, and reading.
While this works for Play Labs, caregivers who are bringing learning home do not need to designate a separate room or special furniture for learning. Instead, consider creating learning spaces from regular home settings, such as a corner of a common room or an outdoor space. Try identifying areas that can be used for different purposes, such as a table for arts and crafts or a corner with floor space for play with toys. Creativity and imagination help create safe and engaging learning environments.
2. Use everyday items as low-cost learning materials
Play Labs are unique for their low-cost and sustainable learning materials. Parents and caregivers meet on a quarterly basis to decorate learning spaces and create contextually appropriate toys with locally sourced materials. For example, families in East Africa use banana leaves to create dolls, jump ropes, and balls, and in Bangladesh, families use clay to create produce for a make-believe market.
For young children transitioning to at-home learning, everyday items can be engaging play materials. Household staples like flour; dry rice, beans, or pasta; and shaving cream can be used for sensory play. Kitchen items such as pots and pans, utensils, and plastic containers can become musical instruments or building blocks and facilitate pretend play. Outdoor objects like rocks, leaves, or flowers can be used for art, science, or counting and sorting.
3. Harness play for learning and resilience
Emerging research indicates that play can promote resilience and establish a sense of normalcy for children in crisis settings. To support children, Play Labs favor playful and participatory activities over rote learning, and caregivers are encouraged to play with their children at home to support social, cognitive, and language development.
While many children have had their routines interrupted, play can help them build a new sense of normalcy. Rather than focusing on teacher or parent-led activities, caregivers can incorporate spontaneous, voluntary activities at home. Block out time for free play and follow your child’s lead. You can also incorporate playful learning into everyday activities. For example, use cooking or baking to explore numeracy skills, or practice colors and sorting while doing laundry.
4. Prioritize your mental wellbeing
A caregiver’s mental wellbeing can have a big impact on their child. In Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, where we have adapted our Play Lab model to support children affected by the Rohingya humanitarian crisis, psychosocial support is integral. BRAC trains teachers to recognize signs of psychological distress in both children and caregivers. When necessary, the teachers refer family members for specialized support.
With major shifts in child care, employment, health, and daily life, many caregivers are facing exceptional stress. It’s important to learn to recognize and respond to stress and anxiety in our children, but also in ourselves. Mitigating your own stress using common approaches like meditation, exercise, and journaling can help you better support your child. If you need additional support, consider options like tele-counseling. This is a challenging, destabilizing time, but virtual resources are more accessible than ever.
As COVID-19 continues to impact the families we serve, BRAC is committed to protecting and engaging children and caregivers. We have paused in-person learning to ensure participant safety, and are working to adapt our education services and launch remote resources to support learning at home. Our priority is to ensure children and families keep healthy, stay connected, and continue learning throughout the pandemic.
Sarah Allen is Communications Officer, Mia Perez is a Program Associate for Education and Youth, and Rosa Taylor is a Program Officer for Education at BRAC USA.
Seven years on from Rana Plaza, Bangladesh’s garment sector faces unprecedented challenges that will fiercely test its resilience. Can COVID-19 serve as a catalyst for a more responsible fashion industry?
BY LINDA PATENTAS
Global brands and retailers have canceled over $3 billion worth of apparel orders in Bangladesh since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The canceled orders comprise 980 million pieces, enough for three articles of clothing for each person in the United States.
These canceled orders spell devastation for Bangladesh’s most significant sector, which accounts for 84% of the country’s total exports. The Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association estimates that broken promises from fashion partners will affect over four million garment workers, the majority of whom are women living in poverty.
A humanitarian crisis with a public health dimension
For millions of garment factory workers and 10 million day laborers across Bangladesh who rely on daily wages to feed their families, the COVID-19 shutdown has already caused acute poverty and food insecurity. According to BRAC’s executive director Asif Saleh, “For Bangladesh, COVID-19 is a humanitarian crisis with a public health dimension.”
In early April, several hundred workers filled the streets protesting overdue salary payments, some alleging they had not been paid since February.
Loss of income and food insecurity can lead to conflict. BRAC’s human rights and legal services offices across the country have seen an increase in gender-based violence cases, including women who lost their jobs in the garment sector.
When garment factories closed in late March, Rakeya* filed a case against her husband, who physically abused her at home. The daughter of a landless farmer, Rakeya had moved from a rural community to Dhaka, shortly after giving birth to her first child, to find a job at a garment factory.
After COVID-19 took her job, Rakeya refused to give up the small portion of land to her husband that she had purchased with her savings. Her husband beat her and drove her out of the house, keeping their young daughter. BRAC helped Rakeya to file a case with the police and reunite her with her daughter.
BRAC’s director of human rights and legal services and social compliance, Jenefa Jabbar, says that stories like Rakeya’s are not uncommon. As both men and women lose jobs and income, domestic violence cases are on the rise. BRAC is seeing an increase in incidents of rape, suicide, child marriage, and domestic violence.
“When millions of people quickly fall back into poverty, it can result in a rapid increase in human rights abuses,” said Jenefa. “This is damaging to any society.” Indeed, one BRAC program received nearly 700 reports of violence across three weeks in late March and early April, a number of which were directly linked to the economic effects of COVID-19.
Broken promises from the global fashion industry
As governments around the world have imposed lockdowns, several major brands and retailers sent letters to Bangladeshi manufacturers calling for the immediate cancellation of orders, totaling more than $3 billion worth of goods. After an outcry from activists, some brands have promised to pay for their orders, while others have pledged to defer payments to an undefined time in the future or asked factory owners for discounts.
Bangladeshi manufacturers are also responsible for $1.96 billion worth of fabrics that go into manufacturing clothes. The Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association estimates that Bangladesh will lose nearly $6 billion this fiscal year as a result of order cancellations.
As we commemorate the seventh anniversary of the Rana Plaza factory collapse, where 1,134 garment workers lost their lives and more than 2,500 were severely injured, the fashion industry’s promise to be more collaborative and accountable is paramount.
This crisis demands responsible supply chains that support the millions of workers who are the backbone of the fashion industry and a commitment to inclusive partnerships that advance the dignity, safety, and opportunity of garment sector employees, especially women.
Supporting garment workers during COVID-19
It has always been BRAC’s ethos to support the most vulnerable communities. Its global response to COVID-19 has reached more than 60 million people worldwide with public health awareness activities across 11 countries.
In Bangladesh, nearly 200,000 families have received cash support of about $18, which will provide emergency relief for two weeks. BRAC has also distributed more than a million hygiene products and spread public health information about COVID-19 to 24.5 million people.
Many of these efforts have targeted geographic areas with high concentrations of apparel factories, such as Gazipur, Savar, and Tongi. According to BRAC University’s Mapped in Bangladesh, an online tool to map exporting garment factories, there are nearly 2,500 factories in Gazipur and Savar, collectively employing 3.5 million workers. Since 2017, BRAC has operated one-stop service centers for garment workers in these neighbourhoods, providing more than 125,000 people with healthcare, skills training and job placement, legal aid, microfinance, health insurance, and more.
To minimize direct contact and overcome barriers to financial inclusion, BRAC is partnering with the mobile money provider bKash to expedite new account registration and is looking to work with factory owners to digitize payments to garment workers.
BRAC has also set up hand washing stations outside of its service centers and at entrances to slum communities where garment workers live and continues to offer health, legal aid, and mental health counselling to community members through call centers.
In Bangladesh, the rate of reported COVID-19 cases is increasing at an alarming rate. Though the majority of cases remain in Dhaka, a lack of testing capacity makes it difficult to understand the full picture. As the country rapidly approaches 5,000 reported cases, BRAC is committed to standing with communities affected by COVID-19.
Hope for a renewed garment industry
In the short-term, BRAC will continue to provide immediate relief for garment workers affected by the crisis. However, the long-term implications for the global fashion industry require attention and action.
The impact of COVID-19 has highlighted the significant power imbalances between industry stakeholders across the supply chain. BRAC is eager to lead broader conversations on rebuilding a responsible industry.
Since Rana Plaza, key stakeholders in Bangladesh have been working tirelessly to ensure that the “Made in Bangladesh” brand represents a new way of manufacturing ready-made garments, where safe, decent work opportunities are the norm.
BRAC teams are exploring approaches that support vulnerable workers who have been left behind, from reskilling programmes to interventions that combat projected spikes in trafficking.
Our late founder, Sir Fazle Hasan Abed, said, “BRAC has always believed that change is human-made. At the heart of everything we do is the conviction that everyone can be actors in history.”
Even as the impacts of COVID-19 destabilize the sector, can we build a renewed industry that distributes value beyond shareholders and supports the economic and social rights of workers?
The fashion industry and garment sector must unite during these challenging times so that the suffering experienced after Rana Plaza is never felt again.
*Name changed to preserve anonymity.
Linda Patentas is Program Manager for Cities, Supply Chains and Migration at BRAC USA. Support communities where garment sector workers live by donating to BRAC’s emergency relief efforts for COVID-19.
This Earth Day, we focus on the impact projects like WE SOLVE have had on both the planet and people living in poverty.
BY CHRIS LYNE
In this age of lockdowns and social distancing, it is easy to focus on the terrible impact COVID-19 is having on people. Development organizations and practitioners the world over are grappling with the challenge of creating opportunities and providing services for vulnerable communities without being able to leave their own home, let alone conduct field visits. However, in spite of this, it is vital that we focus on the progress we have made pre-COVID-19 and will continue to make in the future.
Today is Earth Day, an international celebration created to drive transformative change for people and the planet. A unique project in rural Tanzania has been doing just that.
That project is WE SOLVE, which stands for Women Entrepreneurship through the Solar Value chain for Economic development in Tanzania. WE SOLVE has been tackling the twin problems of limited employment and economic opportunities for women in rural Tanzania as well as limited access to clean energy.
It involves a unique global partnership between BRAC, Solar Sister, a nonprofit that trains and supports women to deliver clean energy to rural African communities, and Signify, a global company offering high quality, reliable, and safe lighting products.
The project has a simple yet effective methodology: Solar Sister recruits women entrepreneurs to sell clean energy products to their own and neighboring communities. Signify is, among other providers, ensuring that Solar Sister entrepreneurs have high-quality, energy-efficient, reliable, and safe lighting to sell. They then use BRAC’s extensive microfinance network of over 200,000 clients as a customer base to sell the solar products. BRAC also supports clients with access to credit via a solar loan product to make the purchase more affordable if they do not have available cash.
The project, which started in 2018, has been funded for 4 years by Danida, Denmark’s development cooperation, and the Signify Foundation. The pilot phase of the project targeted the Arusha region, which is home to Tanzania’s nomadic Maasai and other communities. Many people here are ‘off grid’ and face life without light as soon as the sun sets, meaning that children cannot play or study and families are often dependent on fuel-powered resources to do their daily chores.
At its halfway point, the project has achieved remarkable success. BRAC recently conducted an annual survey report to explore its impact on the incomes and life chances of households in rural Arusha, comparing the baseline survey at the start of 2019 with data collected at the end of the year. The results are extremely encouraging.
Households spent on average 68% less on their energy per year because they used renewable solar lighting products instead of kerosene lamps, which are both expensive to run ($140 per year on average) and have damaging health impacts. The number of households reporting health issues due to the kerosene lamps more than halved with only 16% reporting relevant health problems.
The use of solar lights also had other benefits, with 64% of parents reporting improvements in children’s academic performance, mostly due to solar lights making light available for longer so children could complete their homework at night.
While gathering data for the annual survey, we spoke in detail to a number of clients to learn more about their stories. Elizabeth was one such person. She is a banana trader from Tengeru, a small market-town located in the foothills of Mount Meru. She took out a loan to purchase a solar lamp from a Solar Sister entrepreneur in early 2019.
“Since my family started living in this house in 1998, we had never had electricity. We had been using various types of kerosene lamps to take care of our lighting needs. I am a widow with four children; two are grown up, and two are still in school. The solar light has been very useful to my children, who are still going to school. Before, they used a kerosene lamp for studying at night.
“My son was recently blessed with a baby. Since we still did not have electricity in our home, I gifted my daughter-in-law the light to help with the baby, especially at night. My whole family has really benefited from this light. Even now, although we have managed to get electricity, the light is still very useful to use as a torch outside, or when the power goes out, and also in our bathroom outside that has no light.”
Elizabeth has seen the many advantages of access to affordable clean energy: the women entrepreneurs selling the products are earning an income, and the planet is benefitting from an increase in the use of renewable energy products.
On this day of action for mother Earth, it’s more vital than ever that we celebrate our success and look forward to more progress for communities like Tengeru in the future.
Chris Lyne is Advocacy and Communications Manager at BRAC UK.
Before the second civil war erupted in Liberia, Roland had a thriving farm. But over years of conflict, he lost everything. Today, Roland is charting a pathway to a better life for his family.
By Sarah Allen
Before the Second Liberian Civil War erupted, Roland and his family lived happily in Upper Buchanan, Liberia. A proud owner of more than two acres of land, Roland had a thriving chicken farm and variety of crops that helped feed his family and generate an income to support his wife and children.
But then war broke out. Soldiers raided his farm. They stole his chickens – his livelihood. Eventually, he was forced to abandon the farm and flee to town for his family’s safety.
After the war, Roland struggled to earn a living in town. He moved back to his land in Upper Buchanan with his wife, where he could farm. So that his children could stay in school, he made the difficult decision to leave them in the care of extended family.
Leaving his family was hard, but without his farm, he could not provide for them. He knew it was the right thing to do. But when his family’s safety was again jeopardized, Roland knew he had to return to town — even if it meant sacrificing his farm and his livelihood.
In town, he did not have a job and struggled to earn a living. When a neighbor told Roland about BRAC earlier this year, he decided to attend a three-day training on chicken-rearing.
“I love raising chickens and wanted to start again,” Roland told us.
Roland’s family is one of 15,000 in Liberia that BRAC equips with the training and resources to improve their food security and boost their incomes. The program supports local farmers through training in innovative farming techniques like climate-smart agriculture, connecting farmers with quality farming inputs, and educating families and communities on nutrition and home gardening.
Although BRAC has equipped Roland and many others with tools and skills needed to farm, there are many challenges. Roland told us that the most difficult challenge is feeding his growing chickens. Local chicken feed is expensive, and the chickens eat it quickly. Through his training, Roland learned to make his own chicken feed by mixing ingredients like ground nuts and ground fish bones.
Roland’s goal is to invest in his business selling roosters and eggs and expand his farm, but his number one priority is to save money so that his children can continue their education. He knows education is a pathway to a better life for his children and baby granddaughter.
“I want them to have everything they dream. With an education, life would not be hard for them.”
Roland told us that he still dreams of his old farm. One day, he hopes to move back to the countryside, where there is more space to expand his chicken farm and room to grow vegetables and crops as he once did. Equipped with new skills and tools, he is already making progress towards achieving that dream.
Sarah Allen is Communications Officer at BRAC USA.
A new set of books inspired by real stories from girls in West Africa aims to help girls navigate the unique challenges they face. Hear from the authors who brought their stories to life.
BY SARAH ALLEN
This summer, BRAC published a new collection of life skills books designed for girl participants in its Empowerment and Livelihoods for Adolescents (ELA) program in West Africa. The program provides safe spaces in girls’ communities where they can come together to sing, dance, play games, and socialize. The ELA clubs are led by peer mentors, who facilitate training on life skills, sexual and reproductive health, financial literacy, and livelihood opportunities.
The new life skills books complement the ELA curriculum, navigating topics like forced marriage, early pregnancy, domestic violence, and other key issues that many girls in the program face. We interviewed two Sierra Leonean authors who helped write the books, Mohamed Sheriff and Allieu Kamara, to learn more about the writing process and how their own experiences growing up in the region informed their writing. Their responses have been edited for clarity and length.
How has your country or community impacted your writing?
Allieu: I became interested in writing following the end of the 11-year civil war in Sierra Leone, when I became a journalist. We undertook many research and investigative projects. One of the glaring challenges after the war was that the education system was shattered, which in turn brought about a rapid decline of literary interest. When the Canadian Organization for Development through Education partnered with PEN Sierra Leone to undertake a project called Reading Sierra Leone, it gave me greater opportunity to continue writing about local issues I observed.
What events or other factors in your life have influenced you most as a writer?
Mohamed: My mother, who was a brilliant folk storyteller, influenced me the most. Her storytelling sessions were among my most enjoyable childhood experiences, and through them, I realized the immense power of stories to delight through both spoken and written word. I can say she was my greatest inspiration as a writer and, more specifically, the reason why I write and publish children’s books.
The suspense thrillers I read as a teenager also influenced me markedly as a writer. The gripping suspense, the twists and turns, and the seamless writing style that kept me turning the pages were key factors that enhanced my love for both reading and the art of telling stories.
Another factor that greatly influenced me as a writer was the 11-year civil war in my country, which caused a lot of death and destruction. There was so much to tell and so much to write about that one simply couldn’t not write.
What was your favorite book as a teenager or young adult? Why?
Mohamed: I read and enjoyed so many books that I can’t single out one as my favorite. I loved the folk stories from West Africa and Africa as a whole, but I greatly enjoyed books from other places – like the Arabian Night Tales, Alice in Wonderland, Cinderella, Jack and the Beanstalk, and stories from Greek Mythology.
Allieu: ‘So Long A Letter’ by Senegalese author Mariama Bâ was my favourite book growing up. It deals with problems that many African women face.
The new life skills books cover challenging topics like child marriage, early pregnancy, and gender-based violence. How did you navigate these important but difficult topics as an author?
Mohamed: It was a bit of a challenge – sometimes you want to tell the story graphically, directly, bluntly; at other times, you want to be subtle, less direct, euphemistic, ironic. Even reviewers and editors are not always in agreement about which approach is best, so I follow my instinct.
There are no hard-and-fast formulas or one-size-fits-all approaches. Storytelling is a dynamic business, each story has its own feel, temper, and peculiarities. These determine how you navigate each story.
Allieu: During the research and brainstorming sessions that led to the publication of the life skills books, the project consultant ran a workshop with the authors on ways to deal with these types of sensitive issues in our writing. The main lesson from that workshop was that the dynamics of each story should guide the author about how to address an issue.
What kind of research did you do before writing these books?
Mohamed: Before writing the books, we visited communities where BRAC runs its ELA clubs to talk to their participants, adolescent girls, many of whom have dropped out of school or experienced abuse or another violation of their human rights. They shared their experiences with us as well as their hopes, aspirations, and views about life in general.
Allieu: In another workshop before writing the books, we were trained on how to navigate interviews with stakeholders and conducted focus group discussions with girls in the program, facilitators, and community members. It was interesting listening to the girls, as each person we talked to had different stories about similar challenges.
Which of the issues covered in the books are most important to you or near to your heart? Why?
Mohamed: All the issues dealt with in the books are near to my heart because they are interrelated, in the sense that they are all human rights abuses related to gender. These include early and forced marriage, lack of access to education, sexual abuse, gender-based violence, teenage pregnancy, lack of decision-making power in the home, and more. These are issues I have addressed through my writing for a long time.
Allieu: Personally, all the issues in the BRAC life skills books are important, because they all directly deal with the problems girls are facing in our country. The content of the books actually addressed the topics that came up in our research and provided responses to those problems. I believe if girls read these books, they can be in a better position to tackle the challenges they face.
Why were you interested in working on a project with BRAC?
Mohamed: The project is specifically targeting a readership that few if any people think about – adolescent girls who have dropped out of school. Many of the books that they may have the ability to read and comprehend are children’s books with content that may not match their experiences. Books that may interest them are written with more difficult vocabulary and a style that is beyond their current ability to digest. The BRAC life skills book project gave us the opportunity to produce books that provided interesting content targeted to the reading comprehension level of these girls.
What impact do you hope the life skills books will have? What do you hope readers of these books will learn or gain?
Mohamed: If a constructive reading program is organized for adolescent girls that incorporates these books, the girls could benefit in a number of significant ways. They would be exposed to positive new approaches to dealing with the gender-related human rights challenges they encounter regularly.
There are two key lessons that I want to emphasize: First, suffering in silence will not resolve their challenges, therefore, girls must speak out. Secondly, adolescent girls should never give up on their dreams and goals in life. If they persevere, they will succeed.
Perhaps more importantly, after reading all 11 books, I hope they will have adopted the habit of reading for pleasure and enlightenment. Since many of these girls may never return to formal education, adopting the habit of reading for pleasure could be one of the most valuable life skills tools they can take away from the entire BRAC program. A lifelong habit of reading is an effective means of informal self-education that could increase their communication and comprehension skills and broaden their horizons.
Allieu: Most if not all of the characters in the life skills books who experience gender-based issues reflect the experiences of girls we spoke to in BRAC’s clubs. I hope that they will believe that all is not lost, and that the stories they read will inspire them to adapt to and navigate these challenges.
About the authors
Born and raised in Freetown, Sierra Leone, Mohamed Sheriff is an author, writing coach, publisher, producer, and director. He writes children’s books, short stories, novellas, and dramas for radio, television, and stage, and also produces and directs documentary videos, short films, and radio, television, and stage productions.
Mohamed’s books include Maryama Must Go, Tibujang Must Not Come, Shasha Shooshoo and the Rat, and Secret Fear. He has contributed to plays including Not You Too and Free Juice For All. Mohamed has won several local and international awards for his writings, including three BBC awards for Just Me and Mama (1999), Spots of a Leopard (2006) and A Voice in Hell (1999) as well as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Prize for Excellence in Literature for Secret Fear (1999). He contributed to the following life skills books: Let Me Be, You Think You Know, Broken Promise, Change of Plan, For Her Sake, and To Do and To Dare.
Allieu S. Kamara
Allieu Kamara is an author who specializes in writing children’s books. He studied at Fourah Bay College at the University of Sierra Leone and brings a background in journalism. He enthusiastically promotes literature, reading, and creative writing for children in schools and communities across Sierra Leone.
Allieu’s works include, Is it Magic?, The Waterside Stone, and Thief Thief! He contributed to the following life skills books: You Think You Know, Dreaming Again, and Change of Plan.
Sarah Allen is Communications Officer at BRAC USA.
Scholastica, a mother and Graduation participant in Kitui, Kenya, forges a better life for her family.
By Sarah Allen
There was a time when Scholastica used to plead with her neighbors for a little salt to add to her family’s meals.
But, with ten children – four biological and six adopted from her community – the requests started to add up, and she felt ashamed. Eventually, she stopped asking.
But, like all mothers, Scholastica was determined to provide for her children.
“My children are my top priority,” she told us. “They are my greatest joy.”
Today, Scholastica participates in an Ultra-Poor Graduation pilot program in Kitui, Kenya, run by CARE International with technical support from BRAC.
Graduation programs use a holistic approach to poverty alleviation that targets the most disadvantaged subset of the extreme poor, who live on less than $1.90 per day. Through a comprehensive, time-bound, and sequenced set of interventions, women like Scholastica gain the skills and self-confidence to “graduate” from ultra-poverty into sustainable livelihoods.
The Graduation approach creates the opportunity for women like Scholastica to develop their financial literacy, start budgeting and grow their savings, improve their family’s nutrition and health, learn how to start and sustain a business, and much more.
Dristy Shrestha, a member of the Graduation team at BRAC USA, frequently travels to help governments and nonprofits design and run their own Graduation-style programs. Dristy first met Scholastica at the Gai market in Kitui, Kenya, where Scholastica runs a small grocery business.
“When I first met Scholastica, six months into her Graduation program, she was very shy and soft spoken, but she wore a big smile,” Dristy said. “When the field staff introduced us, they mentioned she was excelling in the program.”
After joining the program, Scholastica leveraged her aptitude for entrepreneurship and started a vegetable stand. She had noticed a lack of vegetable vendors in the area and, seeing a business opportunity, she chose to start a small grocery shop.
“I asked Scholastica if she had felt any changes in her life,” said Dristy.
“She told me that, while she had endured many hardships, what made her most sad was the feeling of helplessness at being unable to provide for her children. Before joining the Graduation program, her family could not afford to consistently eat one meal a day.
When we spoke, she was proud to be earning enough to feed her children well and send them to school.”
Nearly a year into the two-year program, things have already improved for Scholastica.
With an expanding grocery business and a growing selection of livestock, Scholastica is now able to ensure that none of her children go to bed hungry. She is also putting away savings through her Village Savings and Loan Association, and has joined a group that conducts community service projects around town.
She says her children motivated her success.
As her grocery business begins to expand to more local markets, Scholastica and her children are increasingly better integrated in her community.
“It has been incredibly inspiring to see the changes in Scholastica — in her energy, in her self-confidence, and in the power in her voice,” said Dristy.
Today, she is making a living for herself, providing for her family, and lifting up her community.
Reflecting on her journey, Scholastica grinned and told us, “Now people ask me for salt.”
Scholastica is a member of the PROFIT Financial Graduation Program, funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Government of Kenya.
Sarah Allen is Communications Officer at BRAC USA.